Saturday, May 23, 2020

Briefly Outline the Key Features of a...

Briefly outline the key features of a cognitive-behavioural approach to counselling and discuss some of the ways in which this approach differs from one of the other main approaches to counselling. In part two reflect on and write about which of the two approaches discussed in your essay you prefer and why. This essay will explain key aspects of a cognitive-behavioural approach to counselling. Revealing how this method of counselling differs from the psychodynamic approach, and demonstrating my preferred method. The first of these approaches ‘Cognitive-behavioural’ is an umbrella term for a method of counselling comprising several approaches. It evolved from behavioural psychology founded by J.B Watson; an American psychology professor†¦show more content†¦Within the psychodynamic approach are various considerations and decisions regarding how to best to help the client when the counsellor is aware of a client displaying the mechanisms of defence and the conflict it causes a client. (McLeod 2008 p 96-97) The psychodynamic counsellor will use various strategies to assist clients. One such method is ‘Transference’, the counsellor’s presenting themselves as neutral; encouraging clients’ to project feelings or behaviour onto the counsellor, brought about by experiences or relationships. The reason for neutrality is for the counsellor’s assurance that whatever feelings are projected towards them, it’s not anything the therapist has caused due to remaining detached, the client ‘transfers’ an image of a family member or someone who influenced them onto the counsellor. Transference enables the counsellor to make clients aware of such projections so the client can recognise this and prevent it happening in future relationships. Transference is a feature of psychodynamic methodology, useful in determining clients’ histories that aid counsellors in seeing why clients repeat unhelpful patterns behaviourally. Just as a client can project transference, the therapist can experience ‘counter-transference’ whereby a client evokes feelings from the therapist akin toShow MoreRelatedTheories of Personality Development3138 Words   |  13 PagesDuration: Two hours per week for 15 weeks (30 hours). As taught in 2010/2011 session Lecturer’s name: ONIYE, Abdulrazaq Olayinka Qualifications: B.A.Ed (Islamic Studies Education: Usmanu Dan Fodiyo University Sokoto); M.Ed; PhD (Guidance and Counselling: University of Ilorin); Cert. (Data Processing: University of Ilorin). E-mail address: Office Location: Room 15, Department of Counsellor Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin, Nigeria ConsultationRead MoreRelationship Between Culture and the Clinical Practice of Psychological Assessment8526 Words   |  35 Pagespeople. According to Armour-Thomas and Gopaul-McNicol (1998), tests are not culturally biased because of at least three categories or assumptions: tests are culturally fair and items do not favor a particular cultural group; the tasks assess the cognitive abilities underlying intellectual behavior for all groups; and the tests accurately predict performance for all groups. But there are counter propositions that these ideas differ from. Aiken (1971) states that there are three points to be consideredRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesand Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of work that today qualify as constituting the subject of organisational theory. Whilst their writing is accessible and engaging, their approach is scholarly and serious. It is so easy for st udents (and indeed others who should know better) to trivialize this very problematic and challenging subject. This is not the case with the present book. This is a book that deserves to achieve a wideRead MoreImpact of Job Analysis on Job Performance: a Study of Public Sector Organizations of Pakistan25727 Words   |  103 Pages2000 and Lamprecht, 2002 further discussed that this increased competition has resulted in a need for sharpened organizational efficiency. According to Menday ; 1996, Clegg, 2000 and Read; 2000 service has become a business focus and was promoted as a key ingredient in 1 distinguishing an organization from its competitors. Job analysis is the process of comprehensively studying the job to determine what it entails. Byars and Rue (2006, p.64) shared that â€Å"it involves determining the tasks that encompassRead MoreDeveloping Effective Research Proposals49428 Words   |  198 Pagesresearch – data 1.2.2 Quantitative and qualitative data 1.2.3 Relaxing the quantitative–qualitative distinction 1.2.4 Social science and social science areas 1.2.5 Relationship of this book to Introduction to Social Research 1.3 A view of research 1.4 Outline of chapters 1.5 Review concepts Notes 2 The Proposal – Readers, Expectations and Functions 2.1 What is a research proposal? 2.2 Readers and expectations 2.3 Functions and purpose of the proposal 2.4 Pre-structured versus unfolding research 2.5 TheRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words   |  658 Pagesbanking industry: the challenges for a mid-size bank. SABMiller – an African brewer takes on the world: learning to thrive in difficult circumstances. MacPac – from a New Zealand start-up to internationalisation in the outdoor equipment industry. Key: ââ€" Ã¢â€"  = major focus ââ€"  = important subsidiary focus ECS8C_C01.qxd 22/10/2007 11:54 Page 601 A GUIDE TO THE MAIN FOCUS OF CASES IN THE BOOK 601 PAGE NUMBER IN THE BOOK CASE Ekomate – an Indian company uses networks and relationships

Monday, May 18, 2020

Excluding For-Profit Proprietary Colleges from Receiving...

Excluding For-Profit Proprietary Colleges from Receiving Federal Student Financial Aid Introduction Every year, higher education institutions (HEI’s) receive billions of dollars from the Department of Education in the form of loans, grants and subsidies. These funds are authorized under Title IV of the Higher Education Act, and are the primary source of Federal student aid for all HEI’s in the United States. The main Title IV programs include Loans, Grants and Federal Work Study (U.S. Government Accountability Office [GAO], 2009). HEI’s include public colleges, private non-profit schools and private for-profit schools. In the 2010-2011 academic year, the private for-profit schools (known as â€Å"proprietary schools†) collected over $32†¦show more content†¦Public colleges did not have the capacity to handle the sudden influx of new students, and did not have the agility to react swiftly to the sudden upswing in demand. PHEI’s saw the potential market value of these unserved students, and were able to move swiftly to put new programs, and sometimes entire schools, in place to meet demand. From 2008-2010, the ten largest proprietary schools had an average increase in enrollment of over 30% (Harkin, 2012). In the decade between 2000-2010, the PHEI industry had an overall increase in enrollment of 235% (Figure 1.) This represents over 9% of the population of post-secondary students (Lynch, Engle, Cruz, 2010). This growth was supported by the government, which believed the public s ector could not meet the rising demand for education. During this time of exponential growth in the private for-profit sector, the industry benefited from changes in Federal government policies. The U.S. government saw private colleges as a way to expand the choices in the education market. It also saw them as a way to meet demand for education and to develop a more skilled workforce in the United States (Harkin, 2012). To assist in the expansion of this sector of education, constraints on Federal financial aid were loosened, and accredited for-profits enjoyed increased access to Federal student aid funds (Loonin, 2011). In addition to the rising demand for tertiary education, the advent of the internet gave PHEI’s a new delivery method forShow MoreRelatedThe Government and Not-For-Profit Environment100975 Words   |  404 PagesGovernment and Not-For-Profit Environment TRUE/FALSE (CHAPTER 1) 1. F The main objective of a typical governmental or not-for-profit entity is to earn a profit. 2. TA government’s budget may be backed by the force of law. 3. FGovernmental entities have no need for an accounting system. 4. TA government’s internal managers rely on general purpose financial statements for a considerable amount of information about their government. 5. FGovernments and not-for-profits may never engageRead MoreNokias Human Resources System144007 Words   |  577 Pagessmaller reporting company) Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing: U.S.GAAP n International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ≠¤ Other n If â€Å"Other† has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 n Item 18 n If this is an annual report, indicate byRead MoreAccounting Information System Chapter 1137115 Words   |  549 PagesCHAPTER 1 ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1.1 The value of information is the difference between the benefits realized from using that information and the costs of producing it. Would you, or any organization, ever produce information if its expected costs exceeded its benefits? If so, provide some examples. If not, why not? Most organizations produce information only if its value exceeds its cost. However, there are two situationsRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words   |  604 Pagesmanagement required going from seven to three levels of management, greatly expanding the use of crossfunctional work teams, and significantly increasing training. To ease employee and managerial anxieties about the changes, GE Fanuc promised that no employees would lose their jobs. Managers and supervisors affected by the elimination of levels were offered promotions, transfers to other jobs in GE Fanuc, or early retirement buyouts. Additionally, employees were promised profit sharing, which has resultedRead MoreMonsanto: Better Living Through Genetic Engineering96204 Words   |  385 Pages441 441 CASE STUDIES A summary of the case analysis I N T R O D U C T I O N Preparing an effective case analysis: The full story Hearing with the aid of implanted technology: The case of Cochlearâ„ ¢ – an Australian C A S E O N E high-technology leader Delta Faucet: Global entrepreneurship in an emerging market C A S E T W O DaimlerChrysler: Corporate governance dynamics in a global company C A S E T H R E E Gunns and the greens: Governance issues in Tasmania C A S E F O U R Succeeding in theRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pageslearning environment integrates the entire digital textbook with the most effective instructor and student resources With WileyPLUS: Students achieve concept mastery in a rich, structured environment that’s available 24/7 Instructors personalize and manage their course more effectively with assessment, assignments, grade tracking, and more manage time better study smarter save money From multiple study paths, to self-assessment, to a wealth of interactive visual and audio resources, WileyPLUSRead MoreCase Study148348 Words   |  594 Pagesresponsible for the content of third party internet sites. ISBN: 978-0-273-73557-1 (printed) ISBN: 978-0-273-73552-6 (web) All rights reserved. Permission is hereby given for the material in this publication to be reproduced for OHP transparencies and student handouts, without express permission of the Publishers, for educational purposes only. In all other cases, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words   |  960 PagesERP Purchase Decision at Benton Manufacturing Company, Inc. CASE STUDY III-4 The Kuali Financial System: An Open-Source Project CASE STUDY III-5 NIBCO’s â€Å"Big Bang†: An SAP Implementation CASE STUDY III-6 BAT Taiwan: Implementing SAP for a Strategic Transition CASE STUDY III-7 A Troubled Project at Modern Materials, Inc. CASE STUDY III-8 Purchasing and Implementing a Student Management System at Jefferson County School System CASE STUDY IV-1 The Clarion SchoolRead MoreMedicare Policy Analysis447966 Words   |  1792 PagesRelated to Medicare Parts A and B Subtitle D—Medicare Advantage Reforms Subtitle E—Improvements to Medicare Part D Subtitle F—Medicare Rural Access Protections TITLE II—MEDICARE BENEFICIARY IMPROVEMENTS Subtitle A—Improving and Simplifying Financial Assistance for Low Income Medicare Beneficiaries Subtitle B—Reducing Health Disparities Subtitle C—Miscellaneous Improvements TITLE III—PROMOTING PRIMARY CARE, MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, AND COORDINATED CARE TITLE IV—QUALITY Subtitle A—ComparativeRead MoreCost Accounting134556 Words   |  539 PagesMeasures Chapter 10 Allocating Joint Costs Chapter 23 Capital Investmenet Decisions Chapter 11 Variable Costing Chapter 24 Inventory Management Chapter 12 Cost Estimation Chapter 25 Management Ethics and Financial Fraud Chapter 13 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Chapter 26 Revenue, Mix and ield Variances Chapter 14 Differential Cost and Revenue Analysis How to Use this File This ï ¬ le contains an entire manual for your use. Within this ï ¬ le, there have been hypertext

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

A Jury Of Her Peers And A Rose For Emily Analysis - 860 Words

A Comparison between â€Å"A Jury of Her Peers† and â€Å"A Rose for Emily† In â€Å"A Jury of Her Peers† by Susan Glaspell and â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner, both authors introduce female protagonists that are confined by men’s authority. By displaying the protagonists transformation, Glaspell and Faulkner highlight the repercussions of gender roles, to show that when women are trapped, they will go to great lengths to retaliate against their oppressors. In â€Å"A Jury of Her Peers,† Glaspell utilizes the sexist standards in society to demonstrate the harmful effects. Men in the story are presented as being the leader of the relationship and having the role of dealing with important business, while women are shown to be domestic caretakers who†¦show more content†¦While â€Å"A Jury of Her Peers† centers on the ramifications of societal standards in marriage, â€Å"A Rose for Emily† focuses more on the consequences of societal standards in the family. When she was younger, Emily Grierson was controlled by her father. This control is described in this visualization: â€Å" Miss Emily a slender figure in white in the background, her father a spraddled silhouette in the foreground, his back to her and clutching a horsewhip† (866). This image exhibits how Mr. Grierson overpowered Emily in all aspects of her life. Mr. Grierson, similar to the large silhouette, is seen as looming over Emily, and the horsewhip shows that only he possesses the power to choose all decisions in Emily’s life including her spouse. Faulkner conveys this societal standard as extremely harmful, as Emily becomes mentally unwell. Even though she has seen her father’s corpse, Emily repeatedly â€Å"told them [townspeople] that her father was not dead† (866). Mr. Grierson’s lasting effect is also seen throughout Emily’s relationship with Homer Barron, a black day laborer from the north. Although the townspeople believed that â€Å"a Grierson would not think serio usly of a Northerner† (869), Emily continues to desperately pursue the forbidden relationship because she believes it is her last hope of having a relationship. Not long after, Homer leaves her but when he comes back to town, Emily makes him stay permanently by poisoning him. Emily’s mental instability allShow MoreRelatedEnglish All Semester 26504 Words   |  27 Pages01, 8.02A and B, 8.03, 8.05 (segment exam) 5.03- A rose for Emily Part I: Character Identification in A Rose for Emily In complete sentence format, identify each of the following characters. Remember reporters, be sure to include as much information as possible to give your readers a vivid picture of each of the following characters: 1. Emily Grierson: Emily Grierson was a young lady, whose life was always run by her father. Her father who was of very high standard never felt that anyRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pagesfollowing classification of cases by subject matter to be helpful. I thank those of you who made this and other suggestions. Classification of Cases by Major Marketing Topics Topics Most Relevant Cases Marketing Research and Consumer Analysis Coca-Cola, Disney, McDonald’s, Google, Starbucks Product Starbucks, Nike, Coke/Pepsi, McDonald’s, Maytag, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Newell Rubbermaid, DaimlerChrysler, Kmart/Sears, Harley-Davidson, Boeing/Airbus, Merck, Boston Beer, Firestone/FordRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 PagesThe LIS Education and Human Resource Utilization Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 The Organizational Framework for Staffing . . . . . . . . . 216 Job Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Job Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Job Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Recruitment and Hiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Filling Vacant PositionsRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 Pagesto Statistics and Data Analysis This page intentionally left blank Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis Third Edition Roxy Peck California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Chris Olsen George Washington High School, Cedar Rapids, IA Jay Devore California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Australia †¢ Brazil †¢ Canada †¢ Mexico †¢ Singapore †¢ Spain †¢ United Kingdom †¢ United States Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis, Third Edition Roxy Peck

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Television and Its Effects on Society Over the...

Television and Its Effects on Society Over the Past Decades Since its first appearance in the 1950’s, television has revealed itself to be one of the world’s most influential mediums. Its entrance into the media scene has tossed other mediums, such as the radio and print media, aside. With at least one television per household in Canada and with the average Canadian watching about 22.6 hours of TV per week, families are absorbing a great deal of television content; which includes the good and the bad. However, with the current selection of television programs, they are more likely to be seeing more of the bad than the good. In addition, kids more likely to spend more time in front of the TV†¦show more content†¦For example, the cartoon â€Å"X-men† tells the story of mutant humans trying to find their place amongst regular humans. The problem is that some mutants want to wipe out the normal human race, while the X-men are a group of mutants trying to exist as normal people do. In order to protect themselve s and normal humans from the evil mutants, they use their special â€Å"mutant powers† to engage in an ongoing bitter battle, where the one with most powerful mutant defences comes out victorious. And, hence, the battle between good and evil continues and only the strong will survive. Unlike mature adults, young children’s ability to pass rational judgement is not yet fully developed; therefore, they are incapable of seeing that, unlike a mere window, television is able change the view it presents. With the use of sound effects, computer enhancements, and other special effect techniques television is able to convey any image it wants to portray. These effects are often used to create grandeur images that incorporate a sense of realism in fictional programs. The effectiveness of these techniques prevents children from being able to distinguish between what is real and what is only the special effects of television. In addition, the variety of special effectsShow MoreRelatedTelevision Is A Central Form Of Communication1708 Words   |  7 Pagesremarkable world of television can take a person anywhere. Television is a central form of communication which connects people with the outside world. The television has been around for decades and is found in practically every household. People watch the news, movies, game shows, or reality shows; there is a show for everyone, and, like it or not, there are plenty of advertisements. The creation of the television has been the beginning with no sign of an end, connecting people to the past, present, andRead MoreTelevision Watching Patterns Of Viewers Essay1478 Words   |  6 PagesA Study on the television watching patterns of viewers in Chennai Ashima Jose 1 S. Baratwaj 2 1. Assistant Professor, Nehru School of Architecture, NGI, Kuniamuthur, Coimbatore, TN, E-mail: / 8754264707 2.Doctoral Research Scholar, Dept. of Journalism Mass Communication, Periyar University, Salem, TN, India - 636 011, E-mail: / 9790339949 Abstract Television in India started through the SITE experiment which was collaborated jointly by NASARead MoreMedia s Effect On Society1084 Words   |  5 PagesOver the years media has had an intense effect on society, an effect so immense we don’t even notice its presence sometimes. Media is crucial to any society; we are all surrounded by media. Each and every day people interact with media of many forms. Media is generally defined as being a channel of communication. We as a society absorb media from a wide variety of forms such as television, radio, magazines, newspapers, billboards and the internet. These are referred to as ‘mass’ media, because theyRead More The Negative Impact of Exposing Children to Media Violence Essay1448 Words   |  6 Pagesviolence in the media may play a role in this increase in youth violence. Today, there is much controversy over the potential harmful effects of media violence on childrenà ­s lives. I believe that exposure of children to media violence is harmful. For the purposes of this paper, I will limit the definition of (mass) media to television, and, subsequently, violent (mass) media to television programs that contain violent acts. By children, I will be referring to people of age 18 and below who liveRead Moreâ€Å"What Are the Most Important Agents of Socialization and How Are They Being Accounted for in Children Lives1423 Words   |  6 Pages The family is the most influential socializing agent. Infants are born into certain types of families and grow up with them as children and adults. Socialization is the process of imbibing the norms, value and social patterns of a particular society. It is also closely linked to the concept of individual and personal development. The family is perhaps the most important source of socialization, given its central role in the early developmental period (Holm, 2005). It plays this central role becauseRead MorePlastic Surgery Is On The Rise984 Words   |  4 Pageschildren, specifically gi rls, are taught by movies like Cinderella that they should prize beauty. Society continuously values beauty as people of different races and cultures have gone to extremes just for this elegance: from Chinese foot-binding to inflexible corsets from the Victorian times. While plastic surgery existed in ancient times, only recently has it been accepted by the majority of modern day society. Thousands of hard-earned dollars each year are used for these very elaborate surgeries. ThisRead MoreEssay on The Effect of Media Violence on Children767 Words   |  4 Pagesnegative effects on the behavior of children. First, we must define the negative effects of childrens behavior. In 1991, children under the age of ten committed more than 1000 acts of aggravated assault and 81 cases of forcible rape. Juveniles 12 and under committed ...murder, robbery, larceny-theft, and forcible rape(Bennett 32). Generally, we can all assume that the aforementioned crimes are wrong,but the fact that they were committed by children, shows a fault in the society. It is hardRead MorePostmans Analysis of Brave New World766 Words   |  4 Pagesthe future, portrayed in the novel Brave New World, holds far more relevance to present day society than that of Orwells classic 1984.nbsp; Huxleys vision was simple:nbsp; it was a vision of a trivial society, drowned in a sea of pleasure and ignorant of knowledge and pain, slightly resembling the world of today.nbsp; In society today, knowledge is no longer appreciated as it has been in past cultures, in turn causing a deficiency in intelligence and will to learn.nbs p; Also, as envisionedRead MoreThe Corruption of Media690 Words   |  3 Pagesin the huge world we live in. Television violence is often overlooked because of its ability to retain children’s attention. Countless mothers and fathers put their children in front of the television so they can have time to themselves. As a result, the kids are subjected to unnecessary media violence. I feel that this violence has a great effect on the children’s lives. The impact of television violence on youth behavior has been an issue for many years. Television stations and their executivesRead MoreAffect Violence on Television has on Children Essay690 Words   |  3 PagesAffect Violence on Television has on Children Don’t Young Children â€Å"Sponge It† from Television? If a stranger gives a candy and â€Å"junk food† to a child, the kid enjoys eating such foods even though they produce the harmful effects of rotting away at his teeth. With a parent to limit child’s intake of such harmful sweets, however, the child is protected from their damage. Similarly, the American public enjoys viewing violent and abusive programs at the risk of adapting aggressive and unacceptable

Analysis on Personal Philosophy Free Essays

As defined by Webster†s Dictionary, a teacher is â€Å"one who instructs, directs, and disciplines other individuals.† This definition is correct, however, teaching encompasses much more. A teacher is an integral part of the learning process of a child. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis on Personal Philosophy or any similar topic only for you Order Now A teacher also aids the child in personal growth and life development. Teaching has always been my lifetime desire. I look forward with great anticipation to the day when I teach my own class. This will give me the opportunity to instill in the children a thirst for knowledge. This is also a chance for me to make the children realize their unique potential for greatness and open their eyes to the beautiful world around them. Before getting involved in my formal education classes and field experiences in Elementary Education at Pennsylvania State University, I thought being an educator involved teaching the students basic skills, assigning homework, and testing their knowledge. I soon found out that this monotonous routine does not maximize student interest and learning. Through my valuable student teaching experience, I have come to identify with a teaching paradigm known as Inquiry learning. In this particular paradigm, knowledge is viewed as functional and pleasurable. Children learn from the questions they pose. Key skills are learned in context and focus on child interest rather than artificial and made-up. This type of education concentrates on student interest. Children are focused and on-task because they are directly involved in their own learning. The Inquiry Paradigm also allows for numerous hands-on learning experiences. Another aspect of Inquiry learning is that the teacher is viewed as a â€Å"partner along the journey† instead of â€Å"Supreme Being†. I firmly believe that a teacher should treat her students as partners on a journey. This allows students to feel independent and responsible for their own learning. How to cite Analysis on Personal Philosophy, Papers

Case Study Analysis Unlimited Company

Question: Discuss about the Case Study Analysisfor Unlimited Company. Answer: In the memo, it is expected that Sean would mention about positive things of the Pastries Unlimited Company. He should mention how effectively the Company has been able to achieve a sustainable position in the market. In addition to this, using his own contribution in the organization as example, he could portray the significance of the employees. In order to achieve better result, he could share his own experience and his hard work that has helped him to become the Product Department Manager. If these activities are carried on effectively, it is expected that other employees would be motivated to work ethically and with complete commitment. Below mentioned are the points that need to be incorporated in the memo: Mission and vision of the Company that would clarify the companys objectives Some training and monitoring ideas to improve the creativity of employees The significance of working ethically with proper ethical work policies It has been observed that his memo will be able to inspire the existing employees in the organization. Below mentioned are some of the positive results by disseminating the memo among the employees. Job satisfaction: Proper training and coaching to the employees can result in creating job satisfaction among the employees of the organization. Improvement in performance: When the employees will be motivated, it is expected that the performance and the productivity of the organization would increase (Latham 2012). Reduced turnover: Overall activities will definite motivate the employees and thus, the rate of turnover can be reduced (Mahoney 2013). Better ethical approach: It is also expected that with this motivation, the employees shall be working with honest approach, ethically. Strengths: Sean is highly dedicated to his work and he is innovative and enthusiastic Sean always look at the positive aspect of people He is highly dedicated towards his work and responsibilities He develops innovative ideas and motivates others He takes great care of the employee welfare. Weaknesses: Extreme workaholic He is a bit unprofessional; he does not charge extra money for his extra effort He expects the same from other employees I believe that Sean would be successful to improve the behavior of the employees to some extent. With the memo that would be distributed among the employees, it shall be able to create a positive image of Sean on them. If not completely, the memo shall help to change the behavior for future. It is expected that the employees would become sincere and effective like Sean. With proper communication, the employees shall be motivated (Rajhans 2012). As Sean has been with the organization for quite a long time, it is expected that he would have greater dominance over the organization. However, it should also be considered that the employees also have power in the organization and Sean would not be able to create greater domination unless he is accepted among the employees. References: Latham, G.P., 2012.Work motivation: History, theory, research, and practice. Sage. Mahoney, J.S., 2013.Strategic communication: Principles and practice. Oxford University Press. Rajhans, K., 2012. Effective organizational communication: A key to employee motivation and performance.Interscience Management Review,2(2), pp.81-85.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Accounting Theory Leading Automobile Company

Question: Describe about the Accounting Theory for Leading Automobile Company. Answer: Introduction and purpose Volkswagen group is considered to be the leading automobile company in the world, headquartered in Wolfsburg, Germany. The firm specializes in the design, making and the distribution of passenger and commercial cars, motorcycles, engines, and also turbo machineries (Bebbington, Unerman, and Dwyer, 2014 pp 20). In the past year, the company experienced the emission scandal that resulted to decline in its share prices and sales. 1 (i). VW Group Emission The social contract notion can be used to accentuate the relationship between the organization and the stakeholders pragmatically. The social contract allows the societies who are the principal to monitor the firm activities to ensure that the company operations are carried out in acceptable ways. The contract can be viewed to be an agreement between the corporations and the wider community who provide the entities to use various resources in exchange the society expects the benefits outnumber the costs to the stakeholders. VW is involved in an emission scandal that causes environmental damage through emission of nitrogen oxides to the environment which is unacceptable to the society hence implying that VW has failed the first test of test of relevance. The outcome has an A bearing on the monetary, civil and communal benefit to the society from which it derives the right to function (Meiners, 2011). VW appears to carry out its activities beyond the bounds to what the society deems to be a behavior that is socially acceptable. The company hence loses its legitimacy and the Society ultimate may revoke the contract for VW to continue the operations. Under the legitimacy perspective, VW emission scandal will motive the company to change the level of their social and environmental disclosures as a response to the perceived legitimacy treat to the emission scandal. In the subsequent periods, VW will consider to include the appropriate social and environmental disclosures in the annual reports. The annual report is chosen as a statutory document and is a document that VW seek to establish its social imagery. The report addresses the stakeholders and is considered a way the firm managed the external impression and indicated the corporate social responsiveness. 1 (ii). Application of relevant systems based theories The management for VW Group will react following the media announcement of the emission scandal to attain legitimacy in ways such as VW Group management will seek to pragmatically educate and inform the society about the actual changes to the performance of the firm and the activities The management will strive to modify the community perception but not change the behavior (Moore, 2013). The management would manipulate the perception of the society by deflecting the attention from the issue of emission to other related matters. The management at VW Group would also provide information that seeks to offset the negative news which has been made public through the reports from the media and also draw attention on its strengths (Onuf, 2012). 1 (iii) Application of specific systems based theories The other companies in the automotive industry will increase the level of environmental and social disclosures to demonstrate that their activities will continue to be acceptable pragmatically. However, the adverse event articulated by the emission scandal is unlikely to happen to them (Barnes, 2013). Studies accentuate that the threat of legitimacy in the automotive industry may not be caused by direct involvement in the incident but rather to the overall impact of the of the VW emission scandal on the society perception toward the entire industry. The emission scandal is a major environment incident, and it results in legitimacy threat. Therefore according to legitimacy theory companies that operate in the automotive sector would change their social and environmental disclosures. 2 (i) How the share market reacted to the media announcement of the emission scandal Following the companys media announcement of the emission scandal, there was a significant reaction and implication on the VWs Group share price. Volkswagen AG lost an approximately quarter of its market value after the company admitted to cheating on the United States of America air pollution tests for several periods of time thus putting significant pressure on Chief on the Chief Executive Officer, Martin Winterkorn to repair the company reputation of the world biggest car manufacturers. Volkswagen Company share price basically dropped by 23% from $262.84 to $183.57 after admitting the diesel emission cheat because it was determined that the company was only fixing the chemicals compounds into the car fuel tank only when there was a testing (Bonin, 2013). The company share price dropped to $123.80 in September, 2015, When a Volkswagen car was on the road the control for smoke emission is switched off which resulted in the vehicles emitting up to 40 times more nitrogen oxide, pollut ants that what the United States of America legal limit in the real world driving. Another reaction and an implication that arise from the scandal is that the overall company share price lost approximately one-third of its total value after 18th September 2015 and also more than 50% immediately after its peak which was April 2015. This aspect led to the company CEO to resign because of the enormous pressure from the United States of America to pay back a large amount of fines imposed on the company. In general, other German car manufacturers also felt the dropped in share prices by the emission scandal. BMW share price dropped by at least 4.9% and Daimlers share price dropped by 5.8%. 2 (ii) Market reaction to Volkswagen Company Based on the case study, the market reactions to the Volkswagen Company media announcement imply market inefficiency. Most of the company automobiles could not be purchased in several countries because of the fear of side effects that are caused by the emission of smoke that contains high nitrogen content (Deegan, 2013). The nitrogen oxides emitted by the company vehicles as a result of the defeat device cause several respiratory problems like bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema which led to more than 50,000 deaths in the United States of America. This aspect resulted in significant fines imposed by the United States of America as a result of cheating. Under the United States of America Clean Air Act, Volkswagen Group presently faces $18 Billion in penalties and fines up to $37.5 for every car owned by the group in the United States of America. 3 Why the share prices of other automobile companies changed following Volkswagen Company share price change Basing on the efficient market theory, the share prices of other car manufacturers changed following VW share price change since the market was based o the general assumption that there were a large numbers of rational, profits making investors in the whole marketplace. The consumers perception changed following the information that the nitrogen oxide emitted by the car is harmful to their health (Kottasova, 2015). Customers basically declined using any German automobiles because of the perception that all of them were not healthy to be driven by their customers. Therefore, in this aspect, the stock price is an unbiased reflection of all available information and represented the best estimate of the stock price actual value. According to the market efficiency theory, it states that the securities prices usually reflect all the available information that includes private information. The share prices of other automobile companies changed following the Volkswagen Company share price change because of the changes in customers preferences (Guidry, and Patten, 2012). Customers all over the world switched their tastes from the German made automobiles because of the Volkswagen Company scandal in the United States of America. Basing on the behavioral finance theory, there are vital behavioral and psychological variables that are involved in shareholders investment in the stock market that usually provides diverse opportunities for smart investors to profits. From the Volkswagen Company scandal in the United States of America, there was a significant fall in the market for German automobiles that led to the decrease in the share price of other companies because investors tried to avoid any loss of profit that results to low dividends and capital gains. The share prices of other companies declined because of negative information collected by the investors concerning the Germany automobiles (Schroeder, Clark, and Cathey, 2011). According to the rational expectation theory, the theory is usually based on the assumption that several potential customers and investors are rational and make intelligent economic decisions after weighing up all available data and they used their intelligence in their own self-interest. 4. Problems that occur with the use of profit as unit of measurement of a company success Even though profits is a clear goal for the management of VW Group it, however, should not be considered to be a unit of measure for the success of the entity (Shouhua, and Chunhua, 2012). Some of the problems when profit is seen as a measure of achievement of the company include; Profits ignore the timing of returns. It equates a dollar that is acknowledged at the moment with the dollar that is set to be received in the future. In fact, the dollar that is received at present is priced more than the dollar that should be expected in the yet to come period which is an incorrect position. The critics of profits argue that profits ignore the risk that is associated with a stream of the cash flow of the VW Group. For example, the total proceeds from the various activities may be same, but the profit for one business may fluctuate widely than the profit of the other activity. VW Group is a large-scale corporate hence it has different stakeholders such as owners of stock, managers, the employees, the customers and the suppliers who are directly connected with the organization (Hawkins, Coney, Best, 2015). The interest of each stakeholder colludes hence the sole objective of profit cannot be achieved. Where a firm keeps profits as the only aim, the company might commit practices that are unfair to maximize the profits. Conclusions In conclusions, the scandal led to the company share price dropped from $262.84 to $183.57 after admitting the diesel emission cheat since it was determined that the firm was only fixing the chemicals components into the car fuel tank only when there was a testing. According to the company, the emission scandal was a greater environment event, and it led to legitimacy threat as firms that operate in the automotive sector would change their environmental and social disclosures. 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